At present, the Philippines is the last country in Asia and one of only three countries in the world with a year pre-university program. Students of the new system will graduate at the age of 18 and will be ready for employment, entrepreneurship, middle level skills development, and higher education upon graduation.
In The Curriculum,  the first textbook published on the subject, inJohn Franklin Bobbitt said that curriculum, as an ideahas its roots in the Latin word for race-course, explaining the curriculum as the course of deeds and experiences through which children become the adults they should be, for success in adult society.
Furthermore, the curriculum encompasses the entire scope of formative deed and experience occurring in and out of school, and not only experiences occurring in school ; experiences that are unplanned and undirected, and experiences intentionally directed for the purposeful formation of adult members of society.
To Bobbitt, the curriculum is a social engineering arena. Per his cultural presumptions and social definitions, his curricular formulation has two notable features: Hence, he defined the curriculum as an ideal, rather than as the concrete reality of the deeds and experiences that form who and what people become.
Personal formation via curricula is studied both at the personal and group levels, i. The formation of a group is reciprocal, with the formation of its individual participants.
Hutchinspresident of the University of Chicagoregarded curriculum as "permanent studies" where the rules of grammar, rhetoric and logic and mathematics for basic education are emphasized. Basic education should emphasize 3 Rs and college education should be grounded on liberal education.
On the other hand, Arthur Bestor as an essentialist, believes that the mission of the school should be intellectual training, hence curriculum should focus on the fundamental intellectual disciplines of grammar, literature and writing.
It should also include mathematics, science, history and foreign language. This definition leads us to the view of Joseph Schwab that discipline is the sole source of curriculum. Thus in our education system, curriculum is divided into chunks of knowledge we call subject areas in basic education such as English, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies and others.
In college, discipline may include humanities, sciences, languages and many more.
Curriculum should consist entirely of knowledge which comes from various disciplines. To learn the lesson is more interesting than to take a scolding, be held up to general ridicule, stay after school, receive degrading low marks, or fail to be promoted. It is made up of its foundations philosophical, historical, psychological, and social foundations ; domains of knowledge as well as its research theories and principles.
Curriculum is taken as scholarly and theoretical.
It is concerned with broad historical, philosophical and social issues and academics. Within these settings curriculum is an even broader topic, including various teachers such as other visitors, inanimate objects such as audio tour devices, and even the learners themselves.
These can only be called curriculum if the written materials are actualized by the learner. Broadly speaking, curriculum is defined as the total learning experiences of the individual. He believed that reflective thinking is a means that unifies curricular elements.
Thought is not derived from action but tested by application. Caswell and Campbell viewed curriculum as "all experiences children have under the guidance of teachers. They must, therefore, be accepted as fully a part of the curriculum, and most especially as an important focus for the kind of study of curriculum with which we are concerned here, not least because important questions must be asked concerning the legitimacy of such practices.
The constructivist approach proposes that children learn best via pro-active engagement with the educational environment, i. Primary and secondary education[ edit ] A curriculum may be partly or entirely determined by an external, authoritative body e.
These outcomes and assessments are grouped as units or modulesand, therefore, the curriculum comprises a collection of such units, each, in turn, comprising a specialised, specific part of the curriculum.
So, a typical curriculum includes communications, numeracy, information technology, and social skills units, with specific, specialized teaching of each.Senior High School, as part of the K to 12 Basic Curriculum, was developed in line with the curriculum of the Commission of Higher Education (CHED) – the governing body for .
FIVE FOR LIFE ® Physical Education Curriculum includes a Basic Program for Elementary Students, Intermediate Program for Middle School Students and Advanced Program for High School Students. Nutrition Curriculum – Nutrition plays a key role in the growth and development of children.
The U.S. Department of Education sponsored the National Survey on High School Strategies Designed to Help At-Risk Students Graduate and collected data in the school year from a nationally representative sample of 2, public high schools about 13 specific high school improvement strategies designed to improve the .
National High School provides a comprehensive set of high school classes that give students a strong foundation in their pursuit of education. National High School’s curriculum is developed internally by an entire team of highly qualified and fully certified curriculum developers and professors.
Standard High School Curriculum Below is information on the typical classes a high school student will be expected to take, organized by subject. Each subject includes classes that are required to graduate high school, classes colleges expect students to have taken, and suggestions for ways to impress by going beyond these expectations.
Adult literacy and high school equivalency diploma teachers instruct adults in basic skills, such as reading, writing, and speaking English.
They also help students earn their high school equivalent diploma. Adult literacy and high school equivalency diploma teachers are often employed by community Work experience in related occupation: None.