Rome was a city of ancient ruins, and the Papal States were loosely administered, and vulnerable to external interference such as that of France, and later Spain. In the south, Sicily had for some time been under foreign domination, by the Arabs and then the Normans.
History Italy in the early Middle Ages The Roman Empire was an international political system in which Italy was only a part, though an important part. When the empire fell, a series of barbarian kingdoms initially ruled the peninsula, but, after the Lombard invasion of —, a network of smaller political entities arose throughout Italy.
How each of these developed—in parallel with the others, out of the ruins of the Roman world—is one principal theme of this section. The survival and development of the Roman city is another.
The late Roman Empire and the Ostrogoths The military emperors of the late 3rd century, most notably Diocletian —reformed the political structures of the Roman Empire.
They restructured the army after the disasters of the previous 50 years, extensively developed the civil bureaucracy and the ceremonial rituals of imperial rule, and, above all, reorganized and enlarged the tax system.
The fiscal weight of the late Roman Empire was heavy, given the resources of the period: On the other hand, the administration and the army that the tax system paid for reestablished a measure of stability for the empire in the 4th century.
But succession disputes had been a normal part of imperial politics since the Julio-Claudians in the 1st century ad; in general, self-confidence in the 4th-century empire was fairly high.
Aggressive emperors such as Valentinian I — could not have imagined that within a century nearly all of the Western Empire was to be under barbarian rule. Nor was this lack of a sense of doom a simple delusion; after all, in the richer Eastern provinces the imperial system held firm for many centuries, in the form of the Byzantine Empire.
Roman monochrome floor mosaic, 3rd century ad; in the Portico delle Corporazioni, Ostia, Italy.
But in facing them, ultimately unsuccessfully, Roman emperors and generals found themselves in a steadily weaker position, and much of the coherence of the late Roman state dissolved in the environment of the continuous emergencies of the 5th century.
One of the tasks of the historian must be to assess the extent of the survival of Roman institutions in each of the regions of the West conquered by the Germansfor this varied greatly. It was considerable in the North Africa of the Vandalsfor example, as Africa was a rich and stable province and was conquered relatively quickly — ; it was more limited in northern Gaula less Romanized area to begin with, which experienced 80 years of war and confusion — before it finally came under the control of the Franks.
In Italy the 4th-century system remained relatively unchanged for a long time. The government of the Western Empire, which was permanently based at Ravenna afterbecame progressively weaker but remained substantially intact.
While the Germanic king Odoacer ruled Italy afterthe peninsula was not conquered by a Germanic tribe until the Ostrogothic invasion in — Although the peninsula had faced invasions, such as those of Alaric the Visigoth in —, Italian politics continued during the 5th century to be those of the Roman Empire.
This meant, in the context of the military crisis of the period, a continual struggle between civil and military leaders, with the emperors themselves more or less pawns in the middle.
The careers of three of these leaders serve as examples of 5th-century political trends. Aetius controlled the armies of the West between and his murder in ; he was the last man to be active in both Italy and Gaul, as a Roman senatorial leader of a barbarian army that was Germanic, Hunnic, or both.A Brief History of Rome The History of Rome, Italy.
Share Flipboard Email The kings were replaced with a republic which lasted for five centuries and saw Roman dominion expand across the surrounding Mediterranean. Rome was the hub of this empire, and its rulers became Emperors after the reign of Augustus, who died in 14 C.E.
Expansion. The history of the Republic of Venice traditionally begins with its foundation at noon on Friday 25 March AD , by authorities from Padua, to establish a trading-post in that region of northern Italy; the founding of the Venetian republic also was marked with the founding of the church of St.
Sep 01, · Beginning in the eighth century B.C., Ancient Rome grew from a small town on central Italy’s Tiber River into an empire that at its peak encompassed most of . HISTORY OF ITALY Italy and empire Medieval Italy Shifting alliances Napoleon The Republic of Italy: from with the new prosperity benefiting some much more than others and a growing disparity between incomes in the rich north and the poorer south, there is increasing social unrest.
The Political Decay of the Roman Republic - The Political Decay of the Roman Republic The fall of the Western Roman Empire was the first example in history on the collapse of a constitutional system which was caused by the internal decay in political, military, economics, and sociological issues.
Its origins are centuries old, and it still attracts thousands of tourists each year who arrive in Venice to admire the sumptuous costumes and masks parading in the streets and squares. Creating masks is, indeed, an art in Venice, a tradition dating back hundreds .